Charlemagne's success rested primarily on novel siege technologies and excellent logistics[116] rather than the long-claimed "cavalry revolution" led by Charles Martel in 730s. Februar 842", "Charlemagne created a peaceful environment for Jews in his kingdom. He certainly had not been personally in Jerusalem. [151] His beatification has been acknowledged as cultus confirmed and is celebrated on 28 January.[85][152]. The current position of CAROLUS MAGNUS is at North Sea (coordinates 52.14445 N / 3.58553 E) reported 14 mins ago by AIS. In so doing, the Pope rejected the legitimacy of Empress Irene of Constantinople: When Odoacer compelled the abdication of Romulus Augustulus, he did not abolish the Western Empire as a separate power, but caused it to be reunited with or sink into the Eastern, so that from that time there was a single undivided Roman Empire ... [Pope Leo III and Charlemagne], like their predecessors, held the Roman Empire to be one and indivisible, and proposed by the coronation of [Charlemagne] not to proclaim a severance of the East and West ... they were not revolting against a reigning sovereign, but legitimately filling up the place of the deposed Constantine VI ... [Charlemagne] was held to be the legitimate successor, not of Romulus Augustulus, but of Constantine VI ...[86]. His meals ordinarily consisted of four courses, not counting the roast, which his huntsmen used to bring in on the spit; he was more fond of this than of any other dish. Al drie weken is er geen spoor van zijn vrijdagse column. [3] Differences between the five versions Detail of Napoleon in a golden cloak. [84] Leo escaped and fled to Charlemagne at Paderborn. Napoleon Crossing the Alps (also known as Napoleon at the Saint-Bernard Pass or Bonaparte Crossing the Alps; listed as Le Premier Consul franchissant les Alpes au col du Grand Saint-Bernard) is any of five versions of an oil on canvas equestrian portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte painted by the French artist Jacques-Louis David … The latter, loyal to Francia, now went to war with his brother over full possession. Rasahofom. Indeed, Charlemagne faced the toughest battle of his career. Charlemagne was then master of Italy as king of the Lombards. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution … An anonymous monk of Bobbio lamented:[113]. The Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799. This is claimed to be only a legend. There is scholarly debate over this topic, summarised in J. Nelson, Charlemagne (London, 2019), pp. Charlemagne: Denier (Toulouse. Carolus Magnus, etiam Karolus Magnus appellatus (Francogallice Charlemagne; Theodisce Karl der Große) (742–814), fuit Rex Francorum ex anno 768 et Imperator Romanorum ex anno 800 ad mortem.Regnum Francorum in imperium auxit quod multae partes Europae Occidentalis et Mediae complexus est. There he confirmed his father's grants of land,[56] with some later chronicles falsely claiming that he also expanded them, granting Tuscany, Emilia, Venice and Corsica. [15] He became the sole governor of the entire Frankish kingdom. Sander, bestuurslid van Carolus Magnus, wist al vroeg dat hij lid wilde worden van een studentenvereniging. [73] The Frisians afterwards asked for missionaries to be sent to them and a bishop of their own nation, Ludger, was sent. Silver half unit of the Iceni, Pattern-horse type, c.0- CAESAR AVG IMP, Bare head right. Desiderius sent his own ambassadors denying the pope's charges. It is almost certain that a text which survived to the Carolingian age survives still. Karol g bichota. The date of 742—calculated from Einhard's date of death of January 814 at age 72—predates the marriage of his parents in 744. POSTPONED to 2021. lid worden van de Reünistenvereniging. By consequence, most if not all established European noble families ever since can genealogically trace some of their background to Charlemagne. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth based his stories of Arthur largely on stories of Charlemagne. At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognised relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert, a member of Charlemagne's court circle. Per suum regnum et imperium, Italiam vicit, et nomine Imperatore Augusto diadema e … In November of the same year, Charlemagne went to Regensburg where the Avar leaders acknowledged him as their ruler. The Frankish border was slowly extended until 795, when Girona, Cardona, Ausona and Urgell were united into the new Spanish March, within the old duchy of Septimania. It led to war in 802, and for centuries to come, the Emperors of both West and East would make competing claims of sovereignty over the whole. The killings triggered three years of renewed bloody warfare. Belasko and the counties in the Marca Hispánica provided the necessary base to attack the Andalusians (an expedition led by William Count of Toulouse and Louis the Pious to capture Barcelona in 801). Adrian sent ambassadors to Charlemagne in autumn requesting he enforce the policies of his father, Pepin. En el primer plano, sobre las rocas, está grabado: BONAPARTE, ANNIBAL y KAROLVS MAGNVS IMP. The statue was made after the very famous oil on canvas equestrian portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte painted by the French artist Jacques-Louis David between 1801 and 1805 and He took refuge with the ally Duke Lupus II of Gascony, but probably out of fear of Charlemagne's reprisal, Lupus handed him over to the new King of the Franks to whom he pledged loyalty, which seemed to confirm the peace in the Basque area south of the Garonne. He did this by again anointing and confirming Pepin, this time adding his young sons Carolus (Charlemagne) and Carloman to the royal patrimony. Charlemagne's Early Campaigns (768–777): A Diplomatic and Military Analysis. Karolus magnus et Leo papa (Classical Latin: [ˈkarɔlʊs ˈmaŋnʊs ɛt ˈlɛ.oː ˈpaːpa], Ecclesiastical Latin: [ˈkarolus ˈmaɲus et ˈle.o ˈpapa]; lit. He took up arms in opposition to the decision and was joined by Grifo, a half-brother of Pepin and Carloman, who had been given a share by Charles Martel, but was stripped of it and held under loose arrest by his half-brothers after an attempt to seize their shares by military action. are engraved on rocks. In 805 and 806, he was sent into the Böhmerwald (modern Bohemia) to deal with the Slavs living there (Bohemian tribes, ancestors of the modern Czechs). Records name only Carloman, Gisela, and three short-lived children named Pepin, Chrothais and Adelais as his younger siblings. In 789, Charlemagne turned to Bavaria. Napoleon v delovni sobi (1812). He left a testament allocating his assets in 811 that was not updated prior to his death. Thrasuco, his successor, led his men to conquest over the Nordalbingians and handed their leaders over to Charlemagne, who honoured him. [146] An estimate of his height from an X-ray and CT scan of his tibia performed in 2010 is 1.84 metres (6 ft 0 in). King, Sources, p. 110. He then controlled Saxony with the exception of Nordalbingia, but Saxon resistance had not ended. Charlemagne was the eldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, born before their canonical marriage. From the lands where the sun rises to western shores, people are crying and wailing ... the Franks, the Romans, all Christians, are stung with mourning and great worry ... the young and old, glorious nobles, all lament the loss of their Caesar ... the world laments the death of Charles ... O Christ, you who govern the heavenly host, grant a peaceful place to Charles in your kingdom. Charlemagne fostered a system where the Christian majority could procure credit through Jewish constituents. When he was not working, he loved Christian books, horseback riding, swimming, bathing in natural hot springs with his friends and family, and hunting. Daarbij baseren wij ons op vroeg middeleeuwse handschriften en plaatst de schola zich in de traditie van Solesmes en de restauratie … [161], The Economist features a weekly column entitled "Charlemagne", focusing generally on European affairs and, more usually and specifically, on the European Union and its politics. Charles / Carolus Magnus / Karl der Große Emperor of the West was born on 2 APR 742 TO 02-04-747 in Herstal, Walloon Region, Belgium, son of Pépin III "le Bref" Roi des Francs Roi des Francs and Bertrade 'Berthe au Grand Pied' de Laon. [154] During the Hundred Years' War in the 14th century, there was considerable cultural conflict in England, where the Norman rulers were aware of their French roots and identified with Charlemagne, Anglo-Saxon natives felt more affinity for Arthur, whose own legends were relatively primitive. Carolus Magnus, Karlus Hatun (Karlus hukyuq kaq) ( kastilla simipi: Carlomagno, aliman simipi: Karl der Grosse, latín simipi: Carolus Magnus, Ransiya simipi wan inlish simipi: Charlemagne sutipaq runaqa (* 2 ñiqin ayriway killapi 742 watapi paqarisqa Herstal llaqtapi - † Plantilla:28 wañusqa Aquisgrán llaqtapi ). Charlemagne was engaged in almost constant warfare throughout his reign,[70] often at the head of his elite scara bodyguard squadrons. Charlemagne ordered Pepin and Louis to be raised in the customs of their kingdoms, and he gave their regents some control of their subkingdoms, but kept the real power, though he intended his sons to inherit their realms. On the breastplate yoke of the … Advance Carolus Magnus. [162], Actor and singer Christopher Lee's symphonic metal concept album Charlemagne: By the Sword and the Cross[163] and its heavy metal follow-up Charlemagne: The Omens of Death feature the events of Charlemagne's life.[164]. Hij is getrouwd op 30 april 771 in Aachen,Rhineland,Prussia met Hildegard, ze kregen 3 kinderen. However, the stirrup, which made the "shock cavalry" lance charge possible, was not introduced to the Frankish kingdom until the late eighth century. There is a degree of idealization in Napoleon’s noble features, the horse’s perfect anatomy, and in the smoothing and simplifying effect of light. During the Early Middle Ages, he united the majority of western and central Europe. Carolus Magnus! 15 likes. I have done fundamental research to this event, if it could have historical grounds. She was sent back to Francia, but died before reaching Lyons, Lothair (778–6 February 779/780), twin of Louis, he died in infancy, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 21:06. The Saxons were once again defeated, but their main leader, Widukind, escaped to Denmark, his wife's home. Einhard tells again in the twenty-fourth chapter: "In summer after the midday meal, he would eat some fruit, drain a single cup, put off his clothes and shoes, just as he did for the night, and rest for two or three hours. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Pippin had to hold the Avar and Beneventan borders and fought the Slavs to his north. On the breastplate yoke of the horse, the picture is … It is important to distinguish between the universalist and localist conceptions of the empire, which remain controversial among historians. NMS-6913A5. De Nijmeegse Studentenvereniging Carolus Magnus ('N.S.V. If you look closely, you’ll see the names of Hannibal and KAROLVS MAGNVS IMP (a.k.a. This led to renewed conflict. [44] Wittiza was succeeded by Roderic, who reigned for seven and a half years, followed by Achila (Aquila), who reigned three and a half years. Hij is getrouwd in het jaar 792 in Aachen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Duitsland met … The annals[37] tell a slightly different version, with the king dying at St-Denis, near Paris. Charlemagne came into contact with the culture and learning of other countries (especially Moorish Spain, Anglo-Saxon England,[124] and Lombard Italy) due to his vast conquests. To Pippin, he gave Italy, Bavaria, and Swabia. Charlemagne or Charles the Great (2 April 748 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was the King of the Franks from 768, the King of the Lombards from 774, and the Emperor of the Romans from 800. Dark clouds hang over the picture and in front of Bonaparte the mountains rise up sharply. In the foreground BONAPARTE, HANNIBAL and KAROLVS MAGNVS IMP. [81], The Frankish commander Eric of Friuli wanted to extend his dominion by conquering the Littoral Croat Duchy. The conflict lasted until 810 when the pro-Byzantine party in Venice gave their city back to the Byzantine Emperor, and the two emperors of Europe made peace: Charlemagne received the Istrian peninsula and in 812 the emperor Michael I Rangabe recognised his status as Emperor,[108] although not necessarily as "Emperor of the Romans".[109]. [147], Charlemagne wore the traditional costume of the Frankish people, described by Einhard thus:[148]. Carolus … In 754, Pepin accepted the Pope's invitation to visit Italy on behalf of St. Peter's rights, dealing successfully with the Lombards.[18][19]. Carolus Magnus University . Napoleon and his horse fill up most of the picture because he wanted the view to be reminded that he as great, powerful, and larger than life. Charles met Carloman, but Carloman refused to participate and returned to Burgundy. The title of Emperor remained in the Carolingian family for years to come, but divisions of territory and in-fighting over supremacy of the Frankish state weakened its significance. Vervaardigingsjaar: 1600 For instance, his Tennis Court Oath sketch or his initial attempt of Bonaparte portrait. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. In its national anthem, "El Gran Carlemany", the nation of Andorra credits Charlemagne with its independence. The Franks "in general assembly" (generali conventu) gave them both the rank of a king (reges) but "partitioned the whole body of the kingdom equally" (totum regni corpus ex aequo partirentur). The year given in the Annales Petaviani, 747, would be more likely, except that it contradicts Einhard and a few other sources in making Charlemagne sixty-seven years old at his death. Pepin died in 810 and Charles in 811. [143], The largely fictional account of Charlemagne's Iberian campaigns by Pseudo-Turpin, written some three centuries after his death, gave rise to the legend that the king also spoke Arabic. The form in which this acclamation was offered was Frankish-Christian rather than Roman. There is a degree of idealization in Napoleon’s noble features, the horse’s perfect anatomy, and in the smoothing and simplifying effect of light. Carolus Magnus is een symmetrisch opgebouwde, vrijstaande huizengroep, bestaande uit vier woningen van twee tot drie traveeën en drie bouwlagen onder een groot leien schilddak. Bonaparte traversând Marele Saint-Bernard (în franceză Bonaparte franchissant le Grand-Saint-Bernard) este un portret ecvestru al Primului Consul Napoleon Bonaparte pictat de Jacques-Louis David între 1800 și 1803.Napoleon este reprezentat traversând trecătoarea montană Marele Saint-Bernard împreună cu … Oxford: Ecclesiastical History Society, 1978. En el primer plano, sobre las rocas, está grabado: BONAPARTE, ANNIBAL y KAROLVS MAGNVS IMP. Carolus Magnus. 3:05. [65] Charlemagne lost interest and never again returned to Southern Italy where Grimoald was able to keep the Duchy free from Frankish suzerainty. By her he had: Adalhaid (774), who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. Northern Italy was now faithfully his. Alcuin, who ran the palace school and scriptorium at Aachen, was probably a chief influence. The last conquest brought them to the mouth of the Ebro and gave them raiding access to Valencia, prompting the Emir al-Hakam I to recognise their conquests in 813. Finally, in Eastphalia, he defeated a Saxon force, and its leader Hessi converted to Christianity. national planning for SP IMP - see also … Charlemagne), two other generals that crossed the Alps before Napoleon. [32] Each, however, had his own geographic jurisdiction. After his death the surviving daughters were banished from the court by their brother, the pious Louis, to take up residence in the convents they had been bequeathed by their father. Pippin and Duke Eric of Friuli continued, however, to assault the Avars' ring-shaped strongholds. He wore intricately jeweled swords to banquets or ambassadorial receptions. are engraved on rocks. "Quid plura? Charles le Magne only translates Carolus Magnus given in the Latin manuscripts into French, which was subsequent to whatever language Charles spoke. Entre las diferencias, están que unas la capa naranja y en otras es roja, su guantelete está bordado, el caballo es negro, blanco, y moteado. The Slavs ultimately submitted, led by their leader Witzin. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the. However, he tolerated their extramarital relationships, even rewarding their common-law husbands and treasuring the illegitimate grandchildren they produced for him. Sobre las rocas, está grabado: BONAPARTE, ANNIBAL y KAROLVS MAGNVS IMP.La inscripción es muy importante para entender como quería glorificarse pues los nombres de Anibal y Carlomagno junto al de Bonaparte, lo une con estos y le retrata como su sucesor. Due to the increased interest of intellectual pursuits and the urging of their king, the monks accomplished so much copying that almost every manuscript from that time was preserved. Na spodnjem levem delu slike so na kamnih izpisana imena Bonaparte, Annibal (Hanibal) in Karolvs Magnvs (Karel Veliki) Imp, poleg Napoleona torej še imeni velikih mož, ki sta že davno pred njim ubrala enako pot. Detailed information about the coin 10 Euro (Carolus Magnus), ** Exonumia **, with pictures and collection and swap management : mintage, descriptions, … [50] Pepin had no chance to respond as he grew ill and died within a few weeks after Waifer's execution. n Carolus Magnus Carolvs Magnvs (Venice Connection edition) (2000) See All (13) Sell a Copy Price History Advertisement Videos. W otoku: KAROLVS V ROMANORVM IMP SEMP AVNajwyższa nota gradingowa na … In 1964, young French singer France Gall released the hit song "Sacré Charlemagne" in which the lyrics blame the great king for imposing the burden of compulsory education on French children. In 743, the brothers placed Childeric III on the throne to curb separatism in the periphery. Due to the increased number of titles, private libraries flourished. He then returned to Italy and, for the first time, the Saxons did not immediately revolt. [125] His court played a key role in producing books that taught elementary Latin and different aspects of the church. This page was last edited on 8 November 2020, at 00:10. In the foreground BONAPARTE, as well as the names of other famous Alp’s crossers HANNIBAL and KAROLVS MAGNVS IMP are engraved into the rocks. The repudiated Desiderata returned to her father's court at Pavia. In 789, in recognition of his new pagan neighbours, the Slavs, Charlemagne marched an Austrasian-Saxon army across the Elbe into Obotrite territory. Charlemagne accepted their surrender and sent one native chief, baptised Abraham, back to Avaria with the ancient title of khagan. [102], According to Ohnsorge, for a long time, it had been the custom of Byzantium to designate the German princes as spiritual "sons" of the Romans. He left Italy with a garrison in Pavia and a few Frankish counts in place the same year. Fincham 58588. The Basque Duke, in turn, seems to have contributed decisively or schemed the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (referred to as "Basque treachery"). Events in the Duchy of Vasconia (rebellion in Pamplona, count overthrown in Aragon, Duke Seguin of Bordeaux deposed, uprising of the Basque lords, etc.) The army marched to the Baltic before turning around and marching to the Rhine, winning much booty with no harassment. The armies met at Saragossa and Charlemagne received the homage of the Muslim rulers, Sulayman al-Arabi and Kasmin ibn Yusuf, but the city did not fall for him. He was in the habit of awaking and rising from bed four or five times during the night. The earliest surviving planctus, the Planctus de obitu Karoli, was composed by a monk of Bobbio, which he had patronised. Karol g net worth. Nearest to Austrasia was Westphalia and furthest away was Eastphalia. [107] He certainly desired to increase the influence of the papacy, to honour his saviour Charlemagne, and to solve the constitutional issues then most troubling to European jurists in an era when Rome was not in the hands of an emperor. He converted the mayorship into a kingship and awarded the joint property to Pepin, who gained the right to pass it on by inheritance. De compositie bestaat uit twee centrale woningen met lijstgevels, geflankeerd door de twee hoekhuizen met ingebouwde polygonale torens, stompe zijvleugels en smeedijzeren poorten, geïnspireerd op … Their masters had been cornered in the Iberian peninsula by Abd ar-Rahman I, the Umayyad emir of Cordova. Charlemagne rushed back from Saxony and defeated the Duke of Friuli in battle; the Duke was slain. [47] Odo's price for salvation from the Saracens was incorporation into the Frankish kingdom, a decision that was repugnant to him and also to his heirs. The empire would remain in continuous existence for over a millennium, as the Holy Roman Empire, a true imperial successor to Charles.[106]. Alas for miserable me. Charlemagne kept his daughters at home with him and refused to allow them to contract sacramental marriages (though he originally condoned an engagement between his eldest daughter Rotrude and Constantine VI of Byzantium, this engagement was annulled when Rotrude was 11). The author of the Visio Karoli Magni written around 865 uses facts gathered apparently from Einhard and his own observations on the decline of Charlemagne's family after the dissensions war (840–43) as the basis for a visionary tale of Charles' meeting with a prophetic spectre in a dream. He wore a blue cloak and always carried a sword typically of a golden or silver hilt. While fighting the Avars, the Franks had called for their support. and trans. The Latin chronicles of the end of Visigothic Hispania omit many details, such as identification of characters, filling in the gaps and reconciliation of numerous contradictions. For the Pope, then, there was "no living Emperor at that time"[95] though Henri Pirenne[96] disputes this saying that the coronation "was not in any sense explained by the fact that at this moment a woman was reigning in Constantinople". In southern Gaul, Aquitaine had been Romanised and people spoke a Romance language. That year, in autumn, Widukind returned and led a new revolt. Many historians consider Charlemagne (Charles) to have been illegitimate, although some state that this is arguable,[26] because Pepin did not marry Bertrada until 744, which was after Charles' birth; this status did not exclude him from the succession.[27][28][29]. They probably took Tarragona and forced the submission of Tortosa in 809. He worked using 2 or 3 layers. Of is opgestapt, dat is niet duidelijk. teleSUR tv. His personal physician, for example, was Jewish,[119] and he employed one Jew, Isaac, who was his personal representative to the Muslim caliphate of Baghdad. En un primer plano, se ven unas piedras donde está grabado “BONAPARTE, ANNIBAL y KAROLVS MAGNVS IMP”. sont gravés sur des rocs. In about 660, the Duchy of Vasconia united with the Duchy of Aquitaine to form a single realm under Felix of Aquitaine, ruling from Toulouse. He was heavily built, sturdy, and of considerable stature, although not exceptionally so, since his height was seven times the length of his own foot. In 1165, Emperor Frederick I re-opened the tomb again and placed the emperor in a sarcophagus beneath the floor of the cathedral. During that time, Dalmatian Croatia was ruled by Duke Višeslav of Croatia. The female sex was known to be incapable of governing, and by the old Salic tradition was debarred from doing so. His Capitulary for the Jews, however, was not representative of his overall economic relationship or attitude towards the Frankish Jews, and certainly not his earlier relationship with them, which evolved over his life. Charlemagne had eighteen children with eight of his ten known wives or concubines. DESCR_PHOTOS_PICTURE. Charlemagne has been called the "Father of Europe" (Pater Europae),[8] as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the classical era of the Roman Empire and united parts of Europe that had never been under Frankish or Roman rule. Nevertheless:[148]. Taler (thaler) 1543 NGC MS61 (MAX) variety ROMANNORVM Aw. Add Hot Review 23:09. News: CMSS has been postponed to 2021 due to Covid-19 pandemic. No definitive evidence resolves the question. A 9th-century document detailing the inventory of an estate at Asnapium listed amounts of livestock, plants and vegetables and kitchenware including cauldrons, drinking cups, brass kettles and firewood. [59] Charlemagne's opposition to his daughters' marriages may possibly have intended to prevent the creation of cadet branches of the family to challenge the main line, as had been the case with Tassilo of Bavaria. His reform focused on strengthening the church's power structure, improving clergy's skill and moral quality, standardising liturgical practices, improvements on the basic tenets of the faith and the rooting out of paganism. ", "Christopher Lee to release 'symphonic metal' album, The man who played Dracula and Saruman is to tell the story of Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor, through the universal language of metal", "Christopher Lee Celebrates 90th Birthday By Recording Heavy Metal", "Arnau de Montrodon y la catedral de San Carlomagno: sobre la imagen y el culto al emperador carolingio en Gerona", An interactive map of Charlemagne's travels, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Provisional Government of the French Republic,, Characters in Orlando Innamorato and Orlando Furioso, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles containing Old Frankish-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2020, Articles with incomplete citations from September 2020, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Articles containing Ukrainian-language text, Articles containing Hungarian-language text, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Articles containing Latvian-language text, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Macedonian-language text, Articles containing Bulgarian-language text, Articles containing Romanian-language text, Articles containing Serbo-Croatian-language text, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Articles needing additional references from December 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata namespace mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

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